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# Summary of Skills

Age 4-5 - Concept 1: Letters

## Unit 1: A - A Is for Musk Ox [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

### Math

• Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.
• When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

### Science

• Compare characteristics of animals that make them alike and different from other animals and nonliving things.
• Compare characteristics of living and nonliving things in terms of their structure, growth, changes, movement, and basic needs.

### Social Studies

• Identify physical features (mountains, hills, rivers, lakes, roads, etc.).
• Use globes and maps to locate land and water features.

## Unit 2: H - Hondo and Fabian [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

### Math

• Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.
• When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

### Science

• Give examples of different ways objects and organisms move (to include falling to the ground when dropped): straight, zigzag, round and round, back and forth, fast and slow.
• Know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e.g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, insects).

## Unit 3: I - The Little Island [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).
• With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

### Math

• Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category and sort the categories.
• Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight.
• Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common to see which object has "more of"/"less of" the attribute, and describe the difference.
• Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

### Science

• Compare characteristics of living and nonliving things in terms of their movement.
• Know that changes in weather occur from day to day and across seasons, affecting Earth and its inhabitants.

### Social Studies

• Identify physical features (mountains, hills, rivers, lakes, roads, etc.)
• Use positional and directional words (e.g., in, on, out, under, off, beside, behind) to locate objects.

## Unit 4: T - What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).
• With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

### Math

• Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common to see which object has more of/less of the attribute, and describe the difference.

### Science

• Know how to identify major structures of common plants and animals (e.g., stems, leaves, roots, arms, wings, leg).
• Know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals.

## Unit 5: L - We're Going on a Leaf Hunt [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
• Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.
• With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

### Math

• Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.
• Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.
• Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.

### Science

• Classify objects by observable physical properties (including size, color, shape, texture, weight, and flexibility).
• Know how to identify major structures of common plants and animals (e.g., stems, leaves, roots, arms, wings, legs).
• Know that objects can be described in terms of the materials they are made of (e.g., clay, cloth, paper) and their physical properties (e.g., color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility, attraction to magnets, floating, sinking).
• Observe common objects by using the five senses.

## Unit 6: F - Fireflies [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
• With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

### Math

• Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

### Science

• Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, or weight).
• Different types of plants and animals inhabit the Earth; as a basis for understanding this concept, know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e.g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, and insects).
• Know how to identify major structures of common plants and animals (e.g., stems, leaves, roots, arms, wings, leg).

## Unit 7: E - But No Elephants [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print: follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page to page.

### Math

• Classify objects into given categories; count the number of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.
• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).

### Social Studies

• Identify the needs of a family. Explain how families have needs and wants.
• Use positional and directional words (e.g., in, on, out, under, off, beside, behind) to locate objects).

## Unit 8: C - Millions of Cats [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Participate in shared research and writing projects.
• Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
• With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

### Math

• Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.
• Count to 100 by ones and by tens.
• Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way (e.g., by using objects or drawing) and record each decomposition by drawing an equation (e.g., 5=2+3 and 5=4+1).

### Social Studies

• Identify physical features (mountains, hills, rivers, lakes, roads, etc).

## Unit 9: G - The Real Mother Goose [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Recognize and produce rhyming words.

### Math

• Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.
• Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
• Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane "flat") or three-dimensional (solid).

### Science

• Compare weather patterns that occur from season to season.
• Know that changes in weather occur from day to day and across seasons, affecting Earth and its inhabitants.

### Social Studies

• Put events in temporal order using a calendar, placing days, weeks, and months in proper order.

## Unit 10: O - Owl Babies [LA] [S] [SS]

### Math

• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
• Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds, acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

### Science

• Compare different types of the same animal (i.e., different types of dogs) to determine individual differences within a particular type of animal.
• Know that stories sometimes give plants and animals attributes they do not really have.

## Unit 11: S - Seasons of Arnold's Apple Tree [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
• With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).
• With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

### Math

• Correctly name shapes regardless of their dimensions or overall size .
• For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number — e.g., by using objects or drawings — and record the answer with a drawing or equation.
• Identify shapes as either two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid").
• Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds, acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.
• Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

### Science

• Compare weather patterns that occur from season to season.
• Summarize daily weather conditions noting changes that occur from day to day and throughout the year.
• Understand change and observable patterns of weather that occur from day to day and throughout the year.

## Unit 12: D - Dinosaurs Big and Small [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
• Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

### Math

• Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight.
• Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.
• Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common to see which object has "more of"/"less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.
• For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number (e.g., using objects or drawings) and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

### Science

• Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
• Compare different types of the same animal (different types of dogs, different types of cats, etc.) to determine individual differences within a particular type of animal.

## Unit 13: P - Harold and the Purple Crayon [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
• Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing a duck is a bird and learning the verb "to duck").
• Recognize and name end punctuation.

### Math

• Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/corners) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).
• Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.
• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
• Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid").
• Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

### Science

• Observe common objects by using the five senses.

### Social Studies

• Construct maps and models of neighborhoods, incorporating such structures as police and fire stations, airports, banks, hospitals, supermarkets, harbors, schools, homes, places of worship, and transportation lines.

## Unit 14: B - Blueberries for Sal [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
• With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
• With prompting and support, identify the basic similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

### Math

• Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten, ones, and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
• Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g. 5=2+3 and 5=4+1).
• For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

### Science

• Know that sometimes stories give plants and animals attributes they do not really have.

### Social Studies

• Understand how people lived in earlier times and how their lives would be different today (e.g., getting water from a well, growing food, making clothing, having fun, forming organizations, living by rules and laws).

## Unit 15: R - Rain [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Describe familiar people, places, things, and events, and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.
• Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

### Math

• Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.
• Fluently add and subtract within 5.
• Write numbers from 0-20.

### Science

• Know water can be a liquid or a solid and can be made to change back and forth from one form to the other.
• Know water left in an open container evaporates (goes into the air), but water in a closed container does not.
• Observe common objects by using the five senses.

## Unit 16: N - Night in the Country [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
• With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

### Math

• Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numbers.
• Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.
• Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

### Science

• Identify physical features (mountains, hills, rivers, lakes, roads, etc.).
• Know how to identify resources from the Earth that are used in everyday life and understand that many resources can be conserved.

### Social Studies

• Explain how families have needs and wants.
• Explain how jobs help people meet their needs and wants.
• Identify the needs of a family.

## Unit 17: M - Marshmallow [LA] [S] [SS]

### Math

• Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts, and other attributes.
• Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18=10+8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
• Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid").

### Science

• Exemplify positive relationship through fair play and friendship.
• Explain why citizens obey rules in the classroom, school, home and neighborhood.
• Follow rules, such as sharing and taking turns, and know the consequences of breaking them.
• Understand that being a good citizen involves acting in certain ways.

## Unit 18: U - Umbrella [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.

### Math

• Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5=2+3 and 5+4+1).
• Fluently add and subtract within 5.
• Solve addition and subtraction problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

### Science

• Know that changes in weather occur from day to day and across seasons, affecting Earth and its inhabitants.
• Summarize daily weather conditions, noting changes that occur from day to day and throughout the year.

### Social Studies

• Use globes and maps to locate land and water features.

## Unit 19: J - Jump Frog Jump [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Recognize and name end punctuation.
• Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).

### Math

• Compose and decompose numbers from 11-19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18=10+8).
• Count to 100 by ones and by tens.
• Understand that numbers from 11-19 are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

### Science

• Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
• Know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e.g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, insects).

## Unit 20: K - Kindness [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces that tell a reader the topic or the name of the book and that state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...).
• With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

### Math

• Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).
• Count to 100s by ones and by tens.
• Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawing to represent the problem.
• Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20.

### Science

• Follow rules, such as sharing and taking turns, and know the consequences of breaking them.
• Know beliefs and related behaviors of characters in stories from times past and understand the consequences of the characters' actions.
• Learn examples of honesty, courage, determination, individual responsibility, and patriotism in American and world history from stories and folklore.
• Understand how people lived in earlier times and how their lives would be different today (e.g., getting water from a well, growing food, making clothing, having fun, forming organizations, living by rules and laws).
• Understand that being a good citizen involves acting in certain ways.

## Unit 21: V - Zin! Zin! Zin! A Violin [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Recognize and produce rhyming words.
• Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.

### Math

• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
• Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid").

### Science

• Communicate observations orally.
• Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
• Compare the observable physical properties of different kinds of materials (clay, wood, cloth, paper, etc.) from which objects are made and how they are used.
• Observe common objects by using the five senses.

### Social Studies

• Explain how jobs help people meet their needs and wants.

## Unit 22: Y - Little Blue and Little Yellow [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
• Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (i.e., knowing "duck" is a bird and learning the verb "to duck.")

### Math

• Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18=10+8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
• Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5=2+3 and 5=4+1).
• Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three dimensional ("solid").

### Science

• Classify objects by observable physical properties (including size, color, shape, texture, weight, and flexibility).
• Understand how objects are described based on their physical properties and how they are used.

### Social Studies

• Exemplify positive relationships through fair play and friendship.
• Explain why citizens obey rules in the classroom, school, home, and neighborhood.

## Unit 23: W - George Washington's Birthday [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
• With prompting and support, identify the main idea and recall key details of a text.

### Math

• Count to 100s by ones and by tens.
• Count to answer "How Many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.
• Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

### Social Studies

• Identify the purposes of, and the people and events honored in, commemorative holidays, including the human struggles that were the basis for the events (e.g., Thanksgiving, Independence Day, Washington's and Lincoln's Birthdays, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day).
• Know the triumphs in American legends and historical accounts through the stories of such people as Pocahontas, George Washington, Booker T. Washington, Daniel Boone, and Benjamin Franklin.
• Learn examples of honesty, courage, determination, individual responsibility, and patriotism in American and world history from stories and folklore.
• Put events in temporal order using a calendar, placing days, weeks, and months in proper order.

## Unit 24: Q - The Quilt Story [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story the illustration depicts).

### Math

• Analyze and compare two- and three- dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/"corners") and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).
• Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, "Can you join these two triangles with long sides touching to make a rectangle?"
• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).

### Social Studies

• Identify physical features (mountains, hills, rivers, lakes, roads, etc.).
• Identify the purposes of, and the people and events honored in, commemorative holidays, including the human struggles that were the basis for the events (e.g., Thanksgiving, Independence Day, Washington's and Lincoln's Birthdays, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day).
• Know the triumphs in American legends and historical accounts through the stories of such people as Pocahontas, George Washington, Booker T. Washington, Daniel Boone, and Benjamin Franklin.
• Understand how people lived in earlier times and how their lives would be different today.
• Use globes and maps to locate land and water features.

## Unit 25: X - An Extraordinary Egg [LA] [S] [SS]

### Language Arts

• Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
• With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

### Math

• Count forward from a given number within a known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).
• Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

### Science

• Know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e.g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, insects)
• Know that objects can be described in terms of the materials they are made of (e.g., clay, cloth, paper) and their physical properties (e.g., color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility, attraction to magnets, floating, sinking).
• Know that stories sometimes give plants and animals attributes they do not really have.
• Observe common objects by using the five senses.

## Unit 26: Z - Greedy Zebra [LA] [S] [SS]

### Math

• Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.
• Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18=10+8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
• Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.
• For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.
• Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies .
• Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.
• Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

### Science

• Identify major structures of common plants and animals (e.g., stems, leaves, roots, arms, wings, leg).
• Know that the Earth is composed of land, air, and water; know characteristics of mountains, rivers, oceans, valleys, deserts, and local landforms.
• Observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e.g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, insects).