Summary of Skills
Age 11-13 - Concept 2: Semester 2
Unit 1: Greece and Rome [SS]
- Analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.
- Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome.
- Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of ancient Greece.
- Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta with an emphasis on their roles in the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.
- Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta.
- Describe the circumstances that led to the spread of Christianity in Europe and other Roman territories.
- Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and sciences (e.g., Hypatia, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Thucydides).
- Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on church-state relations.
- Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g., written constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic duty).
- Discuss the connections between geography and the development of city-states in the region of the Aegean Sea, including patterns of trade and commerce among Greek city-states and within the wider Mediterranean region.
- Discuss the geographic borders of the empire at its height and the factors that threatened its territorial cohesion.
- Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome's transition from republic to empire.
- Discuss the legacies of Roman art and architecture, technology and science, literature, language, and law.
- Explain the significance of Greek mythology to the everyday life of people in the region and how Greek literature continues to permeate our literature and language today, drawing from Greek mythology and epics, such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and from Aesop's Fables.
- Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, Cincinnatus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero.
- Identify the location of and the political and geographic reasons for the growth of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes.
- Note the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament, and the contribution of St. Paul the Apostle to the definition and spread of Christian beliefs (e.g., belief in the Trinity, resurrection, salvation).
- Outline the founding, expansion, and political organization of the Persian Empire.
- State the key differences between Athenian, or direct, democracy and representative democracy.
- Study the early strengths and lasting contributions of Rome (e.g., significance of Roman citizenship; rights under Roman law; Roman art, architecture, engineering, and philosophy; preservation and transmission of Christianity) and its ultimate internal weaknesses (e.g., rise of autonomous military powers within the empire, undermining of citizenship by the growth of corruption and slavery, lack of education, and distribution of news).
- Trace the migration of Jews around the Mediterranean region and the effects of their conflict with the Romans, including the Romans' restrictions on their right to live in Jerusalem.
- Trace the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture eastward and into Egypt.
- Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of government and back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the significance of the invention of the idea of citizenship (e.g., from Pericles' Funeral Oration).
- Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of government and back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the significance of the invention of the idea of citizenship.
- Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of government and then back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the significance of the invention of the idea of citizenship (e.g., from Pericles' Funeral Oration).
Unit 1: Force and Motion [S]
- Analyze a motion to identify the forces involved.
- Analyze simple machines for mechanical advantage.
- Apply Newton's three laws of motion to explain the motion of an object.
- Calculate the amount of work performed for a task.
- Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
- Create a model to demonstrate Newton's third law of motion.
- Create and interpret displacement-time graphs.
- Create and interpret velocity-time graphs.
- Demonstrate ways that simple machines can change force.
- Design and conduct an investigation, including collecting and analyzing data.
- Distinguish between centripetal and centrifugal forces.
- Investigate how inclined planes and pulleys can be used to change the amount of force required to move an object.
- Know that a force has both direction and magnitude.
- Know that an object moves in the direction of acceleration.
- Know that an object's motion is the result of the combined effect of all forces acting on the object: a moving object that is not subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed in a straight line, and an object at rest will remain at rest.
- Know that changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.
- Know that force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy.
- Know that when an object is subject to two or more forces at once the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.
- Know that when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change.
- Know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction).
- Predict, test, and analyze the results of an investigation.
- Predict, test, observe, and analyze the results of an investigation.
- Recognize that when an object reaches terminal velocity, the forces on it are balanced and it is in equilibrium.
- Recognize which forces require contact in order to influence an object and which forces do not.
- Solve problems involving average velocity and average acceleration.
- Understand the concept of a frame of reference and demonstrate how it is applied in physics.
- Understand the difference between potential and kinetic energy.
- Understand the difference between speed and velocity.
- Use a spring scale to measure force.
Unit 1: Greek Myths [LA]
- Analyze literary works that share similar themes across cultures.
- Analyze, make inferences, and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding.
- Apply language conventions and usage during oral presentations.
- Clarify word meanings through the use of definition, example, restatement, or contrast.
- Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
- Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).
- Compare and contrast the similarities and differences in mythologies from various cultures (e.g., ideas of an afterlife, roles and characteristics of deities, purposes of myths).
- Convey a comprehensive understanding of sources, not just superficial details when providing a summary.
- Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
- Describe conventions in myths and epic tales (e.g., extended simile, the quest, the hero's tasks, circle stories).
- Determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes.
- Edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling.
- Explain how the values and beliefs of particular characters are affected by the historical and cultural setting of the literary work.
- Identify the meaning of foreign words commonly used in written English with emphasis on Latin and Greek words (e.g., habeus corpus, e pluribus unum, bona fide, nemesis).
- Organize literary interpretations around several clear ideas, premises, or images from the literary work.
- Read a variety of literature and other texts (e.g., novels, autobiographies, myths, essays, magazines, plays, pattern poems, blank verse).
- Revise drafts to ensure precise word choice and vivid images; consistent point of view; use of simple, compound, and complex sentences; internal and external coherence; and the use of effective transitions after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed.
- Revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.
- Study the characteristics of different literary genres.
- Synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres, and support those findings with textual evidence.
- Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand content-area vocabulary.
- Use own words in oral summaries, except for material quoted from sources.
- Write responses to literature and develop interpretations exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
Unit 2: The Middle Ages [SS]
- Analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor Henry IV).
- Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire.
- Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world.
- Know the history of the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that culminated in the Reconquista and the rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms.
- Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament, development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England).
- Map the spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia to China, the Middle East, and Europe and describe its impact on the global population.
- Study the geography of the Europe and the Eurasian land mass — including its location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate — and its relationship to ways of life in medieval Europe.
- Understand the development of feudalism, its role in the medieval European economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided the foundation of political order.
- Understand the importance of the Catholic church as a political, intellectual, and aesthetic institution (e.g., founding of universities, political and spiritual roles of the clergy, creation of monastic and mendicant religious orders, preservation of the Latin language and religious texts, St. Thomas Aquinas's synthesis of classical philosophy with Christian theology, and the concept of "natural law").
Unit 2: Light and the Eye [S]
- Analyze the physical interactions of light and matter as they relate to the form and function of the human eye.
- Analyze the physical interactions of light and matter, including absorption, scattering, and color perception.
- Identify responses in organisms to external stimuli found in the environment such as the presence or absence of light.
- Know how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope.
- Know that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye.
- Know that light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.
- Know that light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.
- Know that the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence.
- Know that visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum.
- Know that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths and that retinal cells react differently to different wavelengths.
- Understand how to relate the structures of the eye to its functions.
Unit 2: Tales from the Middle Ages [LA]
- Analyze different forms of point of view, including first person
- Analyze different forms of point of view.
- Analyze the connections of relationships between and among characters, ideas, concepts, and/or experiences.
- Analyze themes and central ideas in literature and other texts in relation to personal issues/experiences.
- Analyze, make inferences, and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts.
- Contrast points of view (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective and objective) in narrative text and explain how they affect the overall theme of the work.
- Determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary words using context clues.
- Develop interpretations exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
- Differentiate between the active and passive voice.
- Narrate an expressive account which creates a coherent organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
- Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they're, there).
- Use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include parallel structures and consistent tenses.
- Use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers, correctly identified antecedents, parallel structures, and consistent tenses.
- Use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers.
- Use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex).
- Use a variety of sentences correctly, punctuating them properly and avoiding fragments and run-ons.
- Use simple, compound, and complex sentences in writing.
- Use the active voice in writing.
- Write responses to literature and select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view, matching the purpose, message, and occasion.
Unit 3: The Age of Discovery [SS]
- Analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason).
- Analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions.
- Compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations.
- Describe the artistic and oral traditions and architecture in the three civilizations.
- Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics, including the development of the calendar and the Meso-American knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations agricultural systems.
- Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent.
- Discuss the roots of the Scientific Revolution (e.g., Greek rationalism; Jewish, Christian, and Muslim science; Renaissance humanism; new knowledge from global exploration).
- Examine the origins of modern capitalism; the influence of mercantilism and cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in seventeenth-century Europe; the changing international trading and marketing patterns, including their locations on a world map; and the influence of explorers and map makers.
- Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Inca empires were defeated by the Spanish.
- Explain how the main ideas of the Enlightenment can be traced back to such movements as the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution and to the Greeks, Romans, and Christianity.
- Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview.
- Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Inca economies, trade, and development of urban societies.
- Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, warfare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery.
- Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs.
- Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (e.g., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer).
- Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (e.g., the telescope,microscope, thermometer, barometer).
Unit 3: The Solar System [S]
- Analyze satellite imagery including spectral analysis and reflectance curves.
- Analyze the components of the solar system including asteroids, meteors, and comets.
- Analyze the components of the solar system including the Sun, planets, and moons.
- Analyze the cycles of the solar system including seasons, days, years, and eclipses.
- Analyze the spin-off benefits generated by space exploration technology including medical, materials, transportation, processes, and future research.
- Compare and contrast the Earth to other planets in terms of size, composition, relative distance from the Sun, and ability to support life.
- Describe space explorations and the understanding gained from them including NASA, historic timeline, Apollo mission to the Moon, space shuttle, International Space Station, and future goals.
- Describe the setting of the solar system in the universe including the galaxy, our size, and the uniqueness of Earth.
- Know characteristics of the universe, including the use of light years to describe distances in the universe.
- Relate the influence of the Sun and the Moon's orbit to the gravitational effects produced on Earth, including solar storms and tides.
Unit 3: The Prince and the Bard [LA]
- Construct essays and presentations that respond to a given problem by proposing a solution that includes relevant details recognizing and/or creating an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
- Explore and analyze the problem-solution process by studying problems and solutions within various texts and situations. (SS)
- Follow the steps for a persuasive essay: state the thesis or purpose, explain the situation, follow an organizational pattern appropriate to the type of composition.
- Identify, analyze, and critique persuasive techniques such as promises, dares, flattery, and glittering generalities.
- Offer persuasive evidence to validate arguments and conclusions as needed.
- Organize an interpretation around several clear ideas, premises, or images.
- Paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.
- Recognize and use ellipses to indicate omissions, interruptions, or incomplete statements.
- Recognize and use parentheses and brackets.
- Recognize and use parentheses.
- Recognize effective arguments in oral presentations and media messages. (SS)
- Summarize author's purpose and stance in oral presentations and media messages.
- Use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings.
- Use proper mechanics including italics and underlining for titles of books.
- Write expository compositions using description, explanation, comparison and contrast, problem and solution.
- Write responses to literature, developing an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
- Distinguish between fact and opinion in oral presentations and media messages.
- Explore and analyze the problem-solution process by studying problems and solutions within various texts and situations. (LA)
- Recognize effective arguments in oral presentations and media messages. (LA)
Unit 4: Elizabethan Europe [SS]
- Analyze how the Counter-Reformation revitalized the Catholic church and examine the forces that fostered the movement (e.g., St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits, the Council of Trent).
- Analyze the historical developments of the Reformation.
- Analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance.
- Consider the role that monarchs played in the lives of everyday people during the Renaissance.
- Describe the growth and effects of new ways of disseminating information (e.g., the ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into the vernacular, printing).
- Describe the theological, political, and economic ideas of the major figures during the Reformation (e.g., Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, William Tyndale).
- Describe the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts fostered a new interest in humanism (i.e., a balance between intellect and religious faith).
- Detail advances made in literature, the arts, science, mathematics, cartography, engineering, and the understanding of human anatomy and astronomy (e.g., by Dante, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Johann Gutenberg, William Shakespeare).
- Explain Protestant's new practices of church self-government and the influence of those practices on the development of democratic practices and ideas of federalism.
- Explain the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of independent trading cities (such as Venice) with emphasis on the cities' importance in the spread of Renaissance ideas.
- Gain an appreciation of the culture of Renaissance-era England.
- Identify and locate the European regions that remained Catholic and those that became Protestant and explain how the division affected the distribution of religions in the New World.
- Identify the key figures of the Renaissance and the Reformation and their contributions, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Johannes Gutenberg, John Calvin, and Martin Luther.
- List the causes for the internal turmoil in and weakening of the Catholic church (e.g., tax policies, selling of indulgences).
- Understand the effects of the reopening of the ancient "Silk Road" between Europe and China, including Marco Polo's travels and the location of his routes.
Unit 4: Technological Design [S]
- Analyze and evaluate information from a scientifically literate viewpoint by reading, hearing, and/or viewing scientific text, articles, and events in the popular press.
- Apply tenets of technological design.
- Evaluate technological designs by applying scientific principles, considering risks and benefits, recognizing constraints of design, and using consistent protocols.
- Evaluate technological designs for application of scientific principles, risks and benefits, constraints of design, and consistent testing protocols.
- Explore evidence that technology has many definitions — e.g., artifact or hardware, methodology or technique, system of production, and social-technical system.
- Explore evidence that technology has many definitions by solving problems using very basic innovations.
- Explore evidence that technology has many definitions: artifact or hardware, methodology or technique, system of production, and social-technical system.
- Understand cross-cutting concepts associated with technological design.
- Use information systems to identify scientific needs, human needs, or problems that are subject to technological solution and locate resources to obtain and test ideas.
- Use information systems to identify scientific needs, human needs, or problems that are subject to technological solutions and locate resources to obtain and test ideas.
- Use information systems to locate resources to obtain ideas.
Unit 4: Newton at the Center [LA]
- Analyze the characteristics of informational works: chapter headings, bolded words, index, table of contents.
- Deliver an oral summary with inferences and conclusions.
- Deliver oral summaries of articles and books: include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
- Explain the function of the graphical components of a text.
- Follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps.
- Follow multi-dimensional instructions from text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures.
- Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns.
- Identify and use infinitives and participles.
- Identify the parts of speech and the structure of sentences.
- Identify, use, and understand the function of perfect and progressive verb tenses.
- Identify, use, and understand the function of prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement.
- Make connections to related topics/information.
- Monitor comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard, and/or viewed.
- Research more on a topic and give an oral summary.
- Summarize and determine the importance of information.
- Understand and explain the use of a simple mechanical device by following technical directions.
- Use appropriate subject-verb agreement.
- Use verb tenses that are appropriate for the meaning of the sentence.
- Write a multi-paragraph essay to convey information about a topic that presents effective introductions and concluding paragraphs; contains a clearly stated purpose or controlling idea; is logically organized with appropriate facts and details and includes no extraneous information or inconsistencies; accurately synthesizes ideas from several sources; and uses a variety of sentence structures, rhetorical devices, and transitions to link paragraphs.
- Write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes.
Unit 5: Modern Europe [SS]
- Analyze current economic issues in the countries of Europe using a variety of information resources.
- Analyze the impact of the concept of democracy on nations of Europe.
- Compare the distribution of natural gas, oil, forests, uranium, minerals, coal, seafood, and water in European countries.
- Define and compare citizenship and the citizen's role in selected countries of Europe.
- Describe and compare major cultural characteristics of regions in Europe.
- Describe and compare major physical characteristics of regions in Europe.
- Describe how major forms of government in Europe protect or protected citizens and their civil and human rights.
- Distinguish between the material and non-material aspects of culture.
- Examine art, music, literature, and architecture in Europe; explain their relationship to the societies that created them, and give examples of how artistic ideas have spread from one culture to another.
- Examine the influence of physical and cultural factors upon the economic systems of countries in Europe.
- Examine the role of individuals and groups in societies of Europe, identify connections among cultures, and trace the influence of cultures of the past on present societies. Analyze patterns of change, including the impact of scientific and technological innovations, and examine the role of artistic expression in selected cultures of Europe.
- Explain and give examples of how nature has impacted the physical environment and human populations in specific areas of Europe.
- Explain how ocean currents and winds influence climate differences on Europe.
- Explain that cultures change in three ways: cultural diffusion, invention, and innovation.
- Explain the impact of humans on the physical environment in Europe.
- Explain the term socialization, and compare the way people learn the rules and their roles in the groups to which they belong in different cultures and times.
- Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between various countries.
- Form research questions and use a variety of information resources to obtain, evaluate, and present data on people, cultures, and developments in Europe.
- Give examples and describe the formation of important river deltas, mountains, and bodies of water in Europe.
- Give examples of how land and water forms, climate, and natural vegetation have influenced historical trends and developments in Europe.
- Give examples of how religious beliefs and philosophical ideas have spread from one culture to another among societies of Europe.
- Identify and locate on maps the countries and capitals of Europe.
- Identify current patterns of population distribution and growth in Europe using a variety of geographic representations such as maps, charts, graphs, and satellite images and aerial photography.
- Identify environmental issues that affect Europe. Examine contrasting perspectives on these problems and explain how human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place cause changes in another place.
- Identify examples of inventions and technological innovations that have brought about cultural change in Europe and examine their impact.
- Identify issues related to a historical event in Europe and give basic arguments for and against that issue utilizing the perspectives, interests, and values of those involved.
- Identify major biomes of Europe and explain how these are influenced by climate.
- Locate and describe the climate regions of Europe and explain how and why they differ.
- Use data gathered from a variety of information resources to compare different forms of government in Europe.
- Use latitude and longitude to locate the capital cities of Europe and describe the uses of locational technology, such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to distinguish absolute and relative location and to describe Earth's surfaces.
Unit 5: Energy [S]
- Analyze heat flow through materials or across space from warm objects to cooler objects until both objects are at equilibrium.
- Analyze the Law of Conservation of Energy and conclude that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form into another; the amount of energy stays the same, although within the process some energy is always converted to heat; and dome systems transform energy with less loss of heat than others.
- Analyze the physical interactions of light and matter including absorption, scattering, and color perception.
- Describe and measure quantities related to chemical/physical changes within a system as evidence of energy/matter interactions including temperature, volume, and gas production.
- Describe the suitability of materials for use in technological design related to energy through electrical conductivity, malleability, and magnetism.
- Determine how convection and radiation transfer energy.
- Develop comprehension of different categories/forms of energy.
- Develop understanding of the relationship between matter and energy in the environment.
- Evaluate data for qualitative and quantitative relationships associated with energy transfer and/or transformation.
- Evaluate information for relationships associated with energy transfer and/or transformation.
- Examine models to build an understanding of the characteristics of energy transfer and/or transformation.
- Investigate and determine proof of the existence of energy in the environment.
- Know that some systems transform energy with less loss of heat than others.
- Recognize evidence for the existence of energy in the environment.
- Understand the transfer of energy in a system.
Unit 5: British Poetry [LA]
- Analyze how the author's choice and use of a genre shapes the meaning of the literary work.
- Analyze the importance of graphical elements (e.g., capital letters, line length, word position) on the meaning of a poem.
- Analyze what effect genre-specific characteristics have on the meaning of the work.
- Identify hyphens and dashes and use them correctly.
- Identify idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry.
- Read a variety of literature and other texts.
- Recognize and use commas in dialogue and after introductory words, phrases, and clauses.
- Understand, make inferences, and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support understanding.
- Use colons after the salutation in business letters.
- Use correct capitalization, including in abbreviations and acronyms.
- Write a poem using figurative language including idioms, metaphors, similes, and personification.
- Write a poem using graphic elements (e.g., word position).
- Write a poem using poetic techniques such as rhyme scheme or meter.