# Force and Motion Age 11-13: Concept 2 - Semester 2: Unit 1 Why do things move in certain ways? And how can you make them move faster or slower? These are questions that engineers wonder about when they design cars and spaceships and roller coasters. The key to understanding them lies in three laws of motion discovered over 300 years ago.

In this unit, you will learn about different types of forces and how they cause objects to move in certain ways. You'll also learn about how different machines make use of forces and motion to help people get work done.
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#### Other Items You May Need

The Age 11-13 semester 2 science units require materials from the Semester 2 Science Kit.
\$110.00 #817 Age 11-13 - Semester 2 - Science Kit

## Prerequisites

• Able to write multiple paragraphs on a topic
• Familiar with the five-paragraph essay

• Lesson 1: Introduction to Force and Motion (2 Days)
• Lesson 2: Exploring Newton's Three Laws (2 Days)
• Lesson 3: Graphing Velocity and Acceleration
• Lesson 4: Measuring Velocity and Acceleration (2 Days)
• Lesson 5: Inertia
• Lesson 6: Work (2 Days)
• Lesson 7: Newton's Acceleration Ramp
• Final Project: Newton's Laws (2 Days)

## Summary of Skills

Moving Beyond the Page is based on state and national standards. These standards are covered in this unit.
• Analyze evidence to explain observations, make inferences and predictions, and develop the relationship between evidence and explanation. (Science)
• Analyze simple machines for mechanical advantage. (Science)
• Analyze variables in scientific investigations by identifying dependent and independent variables, describing relationships between them, using a control, and defining variables operationally. (Science)
• Analyze variables in scientific investigations including dependent and independent variables, use of a control, and relationships among variables. (Science)
• As a basis for understanding that the velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position, know that position is defined in relation to a standard reference point and a set of reference directions, the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object, average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed, and the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary. (Science)
• Define variables operationally. (Science)
• Demonstrate ways that simple machines can change force. (Science)
• Identify and describe the changes in position, direction, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces by calculating average speed using distance and time measurements and measuring/graphing changes in motion. (Science)
• Investigate how inclined planes and pulleys can be used to change the amount of force required to move an object. (Science)
• Know how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction. (Science)
• Know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed. (Science)
• Know that a force has both direction and magnitude. (Science)
• Know that an object's motion is the result of the combined effect of all forces acting on the object: a moving object that is not subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed in a straight line, and an object at rest will remain at rest. (Science)
• Know that changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both. (Science)
• Know that force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy. (Science)
• Know that unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. (Science)
• Know that when an object is subject to two or more forces at once the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces. (Science)
• Know that when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces. (Science)
• Know that when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change. (Science)
• Know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction). (Science)
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