Force and Motion
Age 10-12: Concept 2 - Force and Power: Unit 2

How do Tour de France bicycle racers improve their aerodynamics, the way the air pushes against them, in order to go faster? How do Olympic gymnasts put their bodies intentionally off-balance in order to create motion? How do skateboarders defy gravity to do tricks in the air? In this unit, you will explore the laws of physics that affect life on Earth, specifically how they affect people’s performance, from famous athletes to you and your friends, as you do individual sports.


  • Able to read and comprehend novels at a late 6th or 7th grade reading level
  • Able to write multiple paragraphs on a topic
  • Familiar with the five-paragraph essay
  • Usually used by children in the sixth grade

Table of Contents

  • Lesson 1: Individual Sports and Motion
  • Lesson 2: Speed It Up! (2 Days)
  • Lesson 3: Gymnastics and Balance
  • Lesson 4: Tennis, Lift, and Thrust
  • Lesson 5: Bicycles and Friction
  • Lesson 6: Skateboarding and Gravity
  • Lesson 7: Ice Skates and Other Simple Machines
  • Lesson 8: Potential Versus Kinetic Energy
  • Final Project: Designing a Sports Machine (3 Days)

Summary of Skills

Moving Beyond the Page is based on state and national standards. These standards are covered in this unit.
  • Build and use a model to solve a mechanical design problem, including testing and evaluating the results of the test. (Science)
  • Calculate average speed using distance and time measurements. (Science)
  • Compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy. (Science)
  • Design an experiment that tests the effect of force on an object. (Science)
  • Design and conduct investigations to demonstrate an understanding of scientific inquiry. (Science)
  • Determine factors that affect motion, including force. (Science)
  • Determine how friction affects motion. (Science)
  • Determine how inertia affects motion. (Science)
  • Determine how momentum affects motion. (Science)
  • Determine how people use simple machines to solve problems. (Science)
  • Determine the motion of an object by following and measuring its position over time. (Science)
  • Evaluate how pushing or pulling forces can change the position and motion of an object. (Science)
  • Explain how energy is needed to make machines move against the force of gravity. (Science)
  • Explain how energy is needed to make machines move against the force of moving air. (Science)
  • Identify and describe the changes in direction, motion, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces. (Science)
  • Investigate the relationship between force and motion using a variety of means, including calculations and measurements. (Science)
← go back