Lesson 5: Properties of Matter II

Wrapping Up

Conclusion

The goal of this lesson was to introduce ideas related to properties of matter. You have now covered most of the basic properties of matter and will use what you have learned in the final project for this unit.

Keep in mind that differences in density, boiling point, melting point, and solubility exist among all forms of matter. For example, wax is a solid at room temperature, yet water is not. Candle wax requires a higher temperature to turn from solid to liquid; at a similar temperature, water turns into a gas. The melting point of candle/pour wax is as follows:
  • Nature Soy C-3 Containers & Tea lites: 125-130(degrees)F with a pouring temperature of 150-160(degrees)F (the pouring temperature is higher because the wax cools quickly as it's being poured and can transition from liquid to solid before pouring is complete)
  • Nature Soy V-1 Votive & Tarts/Wax Melts & Floaters: 134-140(degrees)F with a pouring temperature of 160-170(degrees)F
As a challenge, investigate the following online:
  • What is the combustion point of a candle wick? (The temperature at which the wick ignites is the combustion point.)
  • Does candle wax boil?

Questions to Discuss

  • Did the mass of objects change when they were taken from one solar body to the next? Why do you think the weight changed? (No, mass remains constant. The weight changed due to the force of gravity, which differs on various solar bodies.)
  • What is the difference between weight and mass? (Weight is caused by gravity acting on matter; mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass does not change, but weight does change based upon the force of gravity. More gravity means more weight; less gravity means less weight.)
  • If you increase the mass of an object but keeps its volume the same, what do you think happens to the density of the object? (The density of the object increases.)
  • If you increase the mass of an object but also increase its volume, what do you think happens to the density of the object? (The density of the object will remain constant.)
  • If you keep the mass of an object the same but decrease its volume, what do you think happens to the density of the object? (The density of the object will increase.)
  • As an object transitions from a solid to a liquid to a gas, what happens to the mass of the object? Volume? (Assuming that all the particles of the matter remain, the volume of the matter will increase, but its mass will remain constant.)
  • Will the density of matter change if some of the matter is removed (think about pinching a piece off of a lump of clay)? (The density of the object will remain the same, but its volume and its weight will change.)
  • Does a transition occur from one state to the next in water as ice melts and then boils? (Yes, as the temperature [amount of energy] in water increases, the water begins to transition from solid to liquid, and then from liquid to gas.)

Things to Review

  • Some properties of matter depend on the amount of matter present (volume, mass, weight).
  • Some properties of matter are independent of the amount of matter present (density, melting point, boiling point, solubility).
  • The state of matter is influenced by the amount of energy present (as measured by temperature).