Unit Review Sheet
These facts and definitions should be mastered throughout this unit. This page can be used for periodic review and study as you are finishing the unit and in the future.
Facts and Definitions
Lesson 1: Word Families and Long Vowel Review
- Sentences begin with capital letters.
- Word families are groups of words that share letters in common and have a similar sound.
- Long vowel sounds say the letter names, as in /ā/ in "cake" and /ī/ in "kite."
- Long vowel sounds can be spelled in many different ways.
- Silent e has many jobs. One of its most important jobs is to make a vowel say its name, as in "late" and "note."
Lesson 2: Vowel Teams Review
- Long vowel sounds can be spelled in many different ways.
- It's important to consider the position of the letters that make long vowel sounds in words.
Lesson 3: Complex Consonants Review
- An exclamation point tells us to read something with feeling.
- A question mark comes at the end of a question.
- A digraph is a combination of two letters (consonants or vowels) that together make one, new sound (for example, th and sh).
- A blend is a combination of two or three letters (usually consonants) at the beginning or end of a word in which each letter makes its sound (for example, sn in "snake" and sk in "mask").
- The letter c makes two sounds: the hard sound as in "cat" and "crop" and the soft sound as in "cent" and "city." C is usually hard when it's followed by a, o, u, or a consonant. It's usually soft when it's followed by e, i, or y.
- The letter g makes two sounds: the hard sound as in "get" and "goat" and the soft sound as in "giraffe" and "gem." G is usually hard when it's followed by a, o, u, or a consonant. It's usually soft when it's followed by e, i, or y.
- Words that start with kn, wr, and gn, like "know," "write," and "gnat," begin with a silent consonant.
Lesson 4: R-Controlled Vowels Review
- The letter r can change the way the vowel before it is pronounced. For example, the a in "bat" is pronounced differently from the a in "bar," and the i in "sit" is pronounced differently from the i in "sir."
Lesson 5: More R-Controlled Vowels
- There are many spelling patterns that include r-controlled vowels, and some patterns are more common than others.
Lesson 6: Other Vowel Sounds
- Some vowel sounds are neither long nor short.
- The vowel combinations oi and oy make a sound that begins as long o and ends as long e, as in "soil" and "boy."
- The vowel combinations ou and ow make the sound heard in "found."
- There are several ways to make the short o sound: o, au, aw, al, wa, ough.
- The vowel combination oo can make two different sounds as in "room" and "wood."
Lesson 7: More Long Vowel Spellings
- A word with an open syllable ends with a vowel, and the vowel has a long vowel sound (for example, /ē/ as in "we"). A word with a closed syllable ends with a consonant and has a short vowel sound.
- The combinations ei and eigh make the long a sound as in "rein" and "weigh."
- Y at the end of a one-syllable word makes the long i sound as in "cry."
- The combinations ee, ey, and e_e make the long e sound as in "need," "key," and "these."
- The combination ie in the middle of a word makes the long e sound as in "brief."
- The combination ie at the end of a word makes the long i sound as in "pie."
- The combination igh makes the long i sound as in "fright."
- The combination ea can make the long a sound as in "great," the long e sound as in "peach," or the short e sound as in "head."
Lesson 8: Vowel Sounds Review
Lesson 9: Complex Consonants: dge vs. ge
- Words do not end with the letter j.
- The consonant combination dge makes the /j/ sound and is found at the end of one-syllable words that have a short vowel sound, as in "fudge."
- The combination ge also makes the /j/ sound, but it is not used in words that have a short vowel sound. It is used in words with long vowel sounds, r-controlled vowels, and when words have another consonant before the /j/ sound.
Lesson 10: Complex Consonants: tch vs. ch, ck vs. k
- The consonant combination tch makes the /ch/ sound at the end of one-syllable words and immediately follows a short vowel sound, as in "match."
- The consonant combination ch makes the /ch/ sound at the end of one-syllable words but usually follows vowel sounds that are not short (long vowel sounds, uncommon vowel sounds, and r-controlled vowel sounds).
- The consonant combination ck makes the /k/ sound at the end of one-syllable words and immediately follows a short vowel sound, as in "luck."
- The sound /k/ can be made using k ("bank" and "book") or ke ("cake") when the the vowel sound before it is not short (long vowel sounds, uncommon vowel sounds, and r-controlled vowel sounds).
Lesson 11: Final e: ce, ve, ze, se
- Final e makes c soft at the end of words.
- The letter e always follows v at the end of words.
- The letter e usually follows z at the end of words, though there are some exceptions (for example, "quiz," "fuzz").
- Words that end with se can have either the /s/ sound or the /z/ sound.
- A fable is a very short story that usually involves animals and includes a moral or lesson a the end.
- The moral is the point of the story or what life lesson we can learn from it
Lesson 12: Homophones
- Homophones are words that have the same sound but have different spellings and different meanings, such as "pair" and "pear."
Lesson 13: Making Plurals
- A plural is a word that refers to more than one of something (for example, "cats" and "boxes").
- Most regular plurals are made by adding s to the base word (for example, "cat" to "cats").
- For words ending in ch, sh, s, and x, add es to make a plural (for example, "box" to "boxes").
Lesson 14: Uncommon Plurals
- To make a plural, for words that end with a y that follows a consonant, change the y to i and add es (for example, "sky" to "skies").
- For words that end with a y that follows a vowel, just add s (for example, "key" to "keys").
- For words that end with f or fe, change the f or fe to v and add es (for example, "knife" to "knives").
- Some plurals are irregular and don't follow any of these rules (for example, "children," "fish," and "mice").
Lesson 15: Words Ending with ed and ing
- The word endings ed and ing change the tense (past, present, future) of a base action word (verb) but do not change the meaning of the base action word.
- Both ed and ing can be added to words in three different ways.
- The ending ed can be pronounced in three different ways: /t/ as in "slapped," /d/ as in "called," /id/ as in "wanted."
Lesson 16: Words Ending with er and est
- Adjectives are used to describe things and people.
- The word endings er and est are added to descriptive base words (adjectives) to make comparisons. The ending er is used when comparing two things. The ending est is used when comparing more than two things.
- Like ed and ing, the endings er and est are added to descriptive base words in different ways depending on the spelling of the base word.
Lesson 17: Semester Review